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Researchers ‘making headway’ towards in-feed sea lice vaccine

A salmon is checked for lice. Photo: SAIC.
A salmon is checked for lice. Photo: SAIC.

A team of Scottish and international aquaculture experts is developing a pioneering in-feed vaccine for salmon to combat sea lice.


The project, supported with funding provided through the Scottish Aquaculture Innovation Centre (SAIC), follows recent advances in the understanding of fish immune systems, SAIC said in a press release.

Project partners include the University of Stirling’s Institute of Aquaculture (IoA), feed producer BioMar, innovative nanoparticle company SiSaf, and vaccinology expert, Tethys Aquaculture.


The consortium also draws upon the expertise of vaccinologists at the Moredun Research Institute and academic fish immunologists from the University of Maine in the United States.

Despite existing research and prior testing of injectable vaccines to combat sea lice, success has so far been limited with no commercial solution currently available. Veterinary medicines continue to be employed for control, however lice are becoming increasingly resistant to treatment.

The new approach to oral vaccination will deliver the vaccine via specially developed feeds that aim to improve fish resistance to parasites using advanced nanoparticle technology.

Bio-engineering tools will also target sea lice by triggering strong immune responses in the skin of fish, rather than delivering it through the bloodstream alone. Sharing approaches employed to control ticks in agriculture, the new vaccine aims to directly target the proteins important for the parasite’s survival.

Sean Monaghan:
Sean Monaghan: "There is strong evidence to support the use of an oral vaccination approach." Photo: IoA.


Dr Sean Monaghan from the IoA said: “Reducing the impact of sea lice is a major concern for salmon producers around the globe and we are making headway towards finding an effective method for vaccinating fish against this parasite.

“There is strong evidence to support the use of an oral vaccination approach, using nanoparticles in feed for vaccine delivery in order to trigger the desired antibody response.

“Despite the range of treatment and management tools already in use, sea lice remain a challenge to the industry and increased parasite resistance to drug treatment is reducing the effectiveness of these methods. Development of a vaccine would represent a significant advance in sea lice control, providing a practical, eco-friendly tool for use in an integrated sea lice control strategy.”

Priority area

Polly Douglas, aquaculture innovation manager at SAIC, said: “Addressing environmental and health challenges, including sea lice, is one of SAIC’s priority innovation areas and a crucial concern for the global aquaculture industry.

“The work of this project correlates directly with the Scottish Government’s 10-year Farmed Fish Health Framework, aiming to improve fish health, protect the marine environment, and ensure Scotland’s main food export grows sustainably.

“Collaborative research and development projects such as this harness the expertise of academia, industry partners and salmon produers and can play a major role in future sustainability of the industry.”